Obesity, The Silent Killer


Obesity is the presence of excess adipose tissue in the body. The accumulation of fat in the body can lead to serious health challenges. The fat cell is composed of the endocrine cell and adipose tissue.  

Adipose tissue secretes lipids, cytokines. The excess secretion of adipose tissue leads to an increase in the body mass index, fatty acid, and inflammation. This can lead to insulin resistance in the body which leads to diabetes.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) global estimates in 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults aged 18 years and above are overweight, more than 600 million are obese. This ugly trend also after children, with 41 million children under age 5 years overweight or obese. Although obesity is thought to be a rich man disease affecting the developed countries since 1980, obesity and overweight are now on the rise especially in the urban area of third or low-incomecountries in the world. 

Body Mass Index (BMI) is the person weight in kilograms divided by the square height in meters. In short, BMI is used to determine if a person is overweight, underweight or normal. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the Body Mass Index of an obeseadult is greater than or equal to 30.
                                           
Causes of obesity

A person weight is determined by the calorie intake and the energy expenditure. If you eat more calories and metabolizes slowly, your body will store the fat and you will gain weight.

Genetics – A person whose one or two of the parent suffers from obesity has a higher chance of developing obesity. One of the main cause of obesity in leptin deficiency. The hormone leptin produced from the fat cell controls the rate which people eat food by controlling the urge to eat more. The deficiency of this hormone leads to an uncontrolled urge to eat more thereby increasing the calories content.

Excessive eating – Excessive eating lead to obesity, the recommended average calories per day for men is 2500 and 2,000 for women according to the National Health Service (NHS) UK. Food high in fat and carbohydrate has high calories content.

Lack of Sleep – Lack of sleep has been proved to increase the urge to eat more thereby increasing the weight gain leading to obesity.

Aggressive marketing – Processed food manufacturing companies spent a lot of money influencing and changing people decision through advertisement and sponsoring of scientist and major health organization to influence their research, these unethical tactics make it hard for people to decide against their products and follow the mainstream.

Lack of physical exercise – Due to busy work schedule of most adult around the world, physical exercise has now taken the back seat in the mind of people. 

Exercise helps in the burning of excess in the body thereby reducing the BMI. With the advent of technology, most chores at home are now mechanized; effort should be taken by adding thirty minutes of exercise into our day.

Disease – Certain disease and condition for example hypothyroidism and Crushing’s disease can cause people to gain weight.

Medication – Drugs can also cause weight gain as side effect; examples include antidepressants, diabetes medication, oral contraceptive, antipsychotics. If these drugs concern you and your weight you should talk to your doctor to discontinue the use. 
Hormones – Women tend to gain weight when pregnant, menopause or using oral contraceptives.

Effect on health

Obesity is associated with various health diseases and medical conditions. Not every obese person have all the disease and medical conditions associated with obesity but there is a high risk with an obese person.
Diabetes – Diabetes is caused when the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin helps the body to store and use the blood sugar and fat. About 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight and obese; there is no cure for diabetes. If you are suffering from diabetes or know someone having diabetes, losing weight and physical exercise can help you in the control of blood sugar level.
Cancer – Being overweight is linked to an increased risk of having cancer. The World Cancer Research Fund estimates that 20% of all cancers diagnosed in the US are related that to body fatness and lack of physical exercise. Cancer associated with obesity includes cancer of the:

          Breast
    Colon and rectum
          Endometrium
          Oesophagus
          Kidney
          Pancreas

Losing of overweight reduce the risk of cancer by reducing the hormones that are related to causing cancer such as estrogen, androgen,and insulin. 

Heart disease and Stroke – Being overweight increase the risk of having heart disease and stroke by increasing the blood pressure and cholesterol level of the body. Losing weight can help you to reduce the risk of developing heart disease and stroke.

Osteoarthritis – This is an inflammation of the joint, it affectsthe knee, hip, and back. Obesity or overweight increase the pressure on the joint and wear away the cartilage that normally protects them. Losing weight helps in preventing and reducing the risk of osteoarthritis.

Gout – Gout occurswhen you have too much of uric acid in the blood. The uric acid form crystal that is deposited to the joint. Gout is more common among people that are overweight and the losing of weight reduces the risk of gout and vice versa. 

   
Sleep apnea – Is a breathing condition that is linked to obesity. Sleep apnea can cause a person to snore loudly and stopping of breathingduring sleep. This condition can also lead to heart disease or stroke. 

How can obesity be reduce

Obesity can be reducedby taking a major healthy lifestyle change. Obesity has been proven to be a silent killer causing a lot of health challenges, effort should be made to reduce and minimize the risk by losing weight. There are countless of program and method that you can use to reduce weight by:


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